Chatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj

Chatrapati Sambhajiraje Shivajiraje Bhosle

Birth date: 14 May 1657 (Shake 1579, Helambi Nam Samvastare, Jesth Shuddh 12, dvadashis, swati nakshatri, guruwari ghatika 10, daha)


He was the eldest son and successor of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the founder of the Maratha Empire and his first wife Saibai.


Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj celebrated his birth with sheer joy. Distributed sweets, arranged reception for people, donated to all needy, did Suvarnabhishek (Gold coins bath) of Shivaji Maharaj and distributed the gold to poor of the land. He continued his flamboyant roaring on land and sea.


Sambhaji Raje inherited intellectual wealth from his father whereas base of useful excellent education was constructed by Maharaja Shahaji and Maharani Jijabaisaheb. Due to this Sambaji became an all-rounder. Sambhaji Maharaj was well versed in ved-shastr and a reformist in true sense (He challenged and fought many torturous inhumane Brahmani traditions, which will be covered in following articles appropriately).


Sambhaji Raje learned from Ch Shivaji, Maharaja Shahaji and Jijabaisaheb at later stages Keshavbhat and Umaji Pandit were his tutor.


Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj shared the knowledge of fort maintenance, stable management, army management, army discipline, land measurement. Horse riding, scholarly study, arms training, archery etc.


Criminal Penal Code and Raj Dharma were tought through experienced and scholarly elders. One of them was Maharani Jijabaisaheb.


In order to give appropriate understanding of enemy Ch Shivaji Maharaj took him along to Agra to meet Aurangzeb (when Sambhaji Maharaj was just 9 years old).


Being responsible citizen and prince: living upto father's expectations, not hurting anyone, be polite, having good friends, never be in bad’s company, treat other women as mother (This is the way Ch Shivaji Maharaj lived his life)


Follow Raj putra dharma: Obey king’s orders, keep low profile, king should save their peopl in any circumstances.


Learned tricks to govern: Information gathering and governance tricks from ministers, helpers and good people around; Keep good and alert associate alongside, find faithfuls carefully; Sit with excellent adult clerk; stay in courtroom, learn functioning.


Gagabhatt wrote and presented the Samnayan novel to Ch Sambhaji Raje after rajyabhishek. This proves that his scholarly attributes were highly respected among scholars that time.


He knew Sang ved; studied Kamandki and history by himself. He was scholar and knew seven languages[need citation]; he wrote Budhbhushan in Samskritam and Nakhshikha, Nayikabhed and Sat Shatak in Hindi.


He led many a battle post Chatrapati Shivaji’s coronation. However, it was only after the death of Shivaji Maharaj that people truly recognized the personality of Sambhaji. He proved that he was an able successor as proficient and valiant as Chatrapati Shivaji.


In just nine years, he managed to win 128 battles and brought glory upon his father’s name. During this time when religion was playing havoc in the Konkan region he handled the fanatics; he also attacked the Portuguese in Goa. During one such attack, he demonstrated his fearlessness and disregard for his own safety and rode all the way through the middle of a creek; he managed to reconvert the Hindu thus managing to keep alive Shivaji Maharaj’s work; he brought Aurangzeb to his knees with his incessant attacks and made him head south. As an aggressive warrior and a competent administrator, Sambhaji, thus handled his empire well.


Chatrapati Sambhaji has this inscription on his royal seal

Shri Shambo ShivajaTasya mudra ghauRiva Raajate YadamKasevini lekha varTaTe Kasya no pari

(The Royal Seal of Sambhaji, son of Shivaji Maharaj, shines radiantly in the brilliant sky Even the crescent moon that halos great men acquiesces to this seal)


Chatrapati Sambhaji always put up a brave face to the adverse circumstances he encountered all his life. His ability to ward off the Mughal invasion with a meagre army of about 30,000-35,000 against Aurangazeb’s experienced and mighty army of over 7,00,000 stood testimony to this. Double-crossers, traitors and conspirators always made matters worse. One such traitor caused his arrest In the year 1689. The Mogul, Murkharab Khan arrested Sambhaji at Sangameshwar when he was proceeding to Raigarh from Vishalgarh and brought him to Tulapur. He was brutally treated and mercilessly tortured by Aurangzeb. He died, heroically standing by the strength of his religious beliefs and for the independence of his homeland.


The remarkable things that Sambhaji Maharaj achieved in his short life had far-reaching effects on the whole of India. He valiantly faced the 7 lakh strong army of Aurangzeb and defeated several Moghul chieftains in the battlefield forcing them to retreat. Because of this, Aurangzeb remained engaged in battles in Maharashtra, thus keeping the rest of India free from Aurangzeb's tyranny for a long time. This can be considered as the greatest achievement of Sambhaji Maharaj. If Sambhaji Maharaj would have arrived at a settlement with Aurangzeb and accepted his proposal of being a tributary prince, then within the next 2 or 3 years Aurangzeb would have captured North India again. However, because of Sambhaji Maharaj's struggle, Aurangzeb was stuck in battles in South India for 27 years.

 

Name Sambhaji  Raje Bhosle
Father Name Shivaji Shahaji Bhosle
Born On 14th May 1657
Died On 11 March 1689
Death Place Vadhu Bdk
Wives Yesubai, Durgabai
Childrens

Chatrapati Shahu Maharaj

Successor Chatrapati Rajaram
Coronation 16 January 1681
Religion Hinduism